By John Bryan Holds MD
Information the anatomy of the orbit and adnexa, and emphasizes a realistic method of the overview and administration of orbital and eyelid issues, together with malpositions and involutional adjustments. Updates present details on congenital, inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic and irritating stipulations of the orbit and accent buildings. Covers key features of orbital, eyelid and facial surgical procedure. contains a number of new colour pictures. significant revision 2011-2012.
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Extra resources for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 7: Orbit, Eyelids, and Lacrimal System (Basic & Clinical Science Course)
Abnormal vascular flow may be caused by arteriovenous communications, such as carotid cavernous or dural cavernous fistulas . Defects in the bony orbital walls may result from si nus mucoceles, surgical removal of bone, trauma, or developmental abnormalities, including encephalocele. meningocele, or sphenoid wing dysplasia (associated with neurofibromatosis). Auscultation Auscultation with a stethoscope over the globe or on the mastoid bone may detect bruits in cases of carotid cavernous fistula.
The lateral wall of the nose has 3 bony projections: the superior, middle, and inferior conchae (turbinates). The conchae are covered by nasal mucosa, and they overhang th e corresponding me- atuses. Just cephalad to the superior concha is the sphenoethmoidal recess, into which the sphenoid sinus drains. The frontal sinus and the anterior and middle ethmoid air cells dra in into the middle meatus. The nasolacrimal duct opens into the inferior meatus. The nasal cavity is lined by a pseudostratified, cil iated columnar epithelium with copious goblet cells.
Such repairs are comp lex, as noted in the following discussion of craniofacial clefting. Microphthalmia with orbital cyst results from the fa ilu re of the choroidal fissure to close in the embryo. This condition is usually unilateral but may be bilateral. The presence of an orbital cyst may be beneficial for stimulating normal growth of the involved orbital bone and eyelids. In some cases, the orbital cyst may have to be removed to allow for fitting of an ocular prosthesis. Craniofacial Clefting Craniofacial clefts occur as a result of a developrn ental arrest.
2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 7: Orbit, Eyelids, and Lacrimal System (Basic & Clinical Science Course) by John Bryan Holds MD