By Oscar E. Swan
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Additional info for A grammar of contemporary Polish
Cnot-Ø: g∏ow-Ø: kor-Ø: koz-Ø: pol-Ø: zorz-Ø: r´k-Ø: wst´g-Ø: cnót virtue-Gpl. g∏ów head-Gpl. kór bark-Gpl. kóz goat-Gpl. pól field-Gpl. zórz dawn-Gpl. ràk hand-Gpl. wstàg ribbon-Gpl. Compare with: cnot-a: cnota Nsg. g∏ow-a: g∏owa Nsg. kor-a: kora Nsg. koz-a: koza Nsg. pol-e: pole Nsg. zorz-a: zorza Nsg. r´k-a: r´ka Nsg. wst´g-a: wst´ga Nsg. From the point of view of masculine noun declension, where the Nominative sg. , the dictionary form) contains the shifted vowel, this rule appears to operate in reverse: bor-Ø: sto∏-Ø: d´b- Ø: w´˝- Ø: bór woods-NAsg.
9. Other feminine nouns with various irregularities include: a. kuchnia kitchen, Gpl. kuchni or kuchen; suknia gown, Gpl. sukien or sukni. wiÊnia cherry, Gpl. wisien (or wiÊni). Note in all instances the hard final n. b. czeÊç honor, GDLVsg. czci, sg. czcià; no plural. c. szansa chance, NAVpl. szanse. d. nuda boredom, Gpl. nudów. e. Wielkanoc Easter (NA), GDL Wielkanocy or Wielkiejnocy, I Wielkanocà or Wielkànocà. f. brandy brandy, pepsi Pepsi, whisky whisky: indeclinable feminine nouns; cf. francuska brandy French brandy, szkocka whisky Scotch whisky, zimna pepsi a cold Pepsi.
Consonant replacement type R4. Illustration using the masc. Isg. ending -èm. rok year Step 1. Obtain the stem by subtracting the ending (here, zero) from rok, and add èm to the stem: rok-èm. Step 2. Replace k with its R4 counterpart k′, simultaneously merging è with e: rok′-em. Step 3. Spell k′ as ki before the vowel e: roki-em: rokiem. 5. Mobile e before consonant plus Ø. Illustrations from masculine and feminine noun declension. pies psa dog, illustration of Nsg. Step 1. Obtain the stem by comparing the N and G forms pies psa and add -Ø to the resultant stem p′s-: p′s-Ø.
A grammar of contemporary Polish by Oscar E. Swan