Download PDF by L. Magnani: Abduction, Reason and Science - Processes of Discovery and

By L. Magnani

ISBN-10: 0306465140

ISBN-13: 9780306465147

This e-book ties jointly the worries of philosophers of technology and AI researchers, displaying for instance the connections among clinical considering and health worker structures. It lays out an invaluable normal framework for dialogue of quite a few varieties of abduction. It develops very important principles approximately features of abductive reasoning which have been fairly ignored in cognitive technological know-how, together with using visible and temporal representations and the position of abduction within the withdrawal of hypotheses.

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Human beings and animals have evolved in such a way that now they are able to recognize habitual and recurrent events and to "emotionally" deal with them, like in cases of fear, that appears to be a quick explanation that some events are dangerous. During the evolution such abductive types of recognition and explanation settled in their nervous systems: we can abduce "fear" as a reaction to a possible external danger, but also when affronting a different types of evidence, like in the case of "reading a thriller" (Oatley, 1996).

Peirce says: "Abductive inference shades into perceptual judgment without any sharp line of demarcation between them" (Peirce, 1955c, p. 304). By perception, knowledge constructions are so instantly reorganized that they become habitual and diffuse and do not need any further testing: "[... 37). Many visual stimuli - that can be considered the "premises" of the involved abduction - are ambiguous, yet people are adept at imposing order on them: "We readily form such hypotheses as that an obscurely seen face belongs to a friend of ours, because we can thereby explain what has been observed" (Thagard, 1988, p.

Clearly abduction in medical diagnostic reasoning is an example of nonmonotonic deduction. 3 Abduction as hypothesis generation, abduction as hypothesis generation and evaluation As stated above, there are two main epistemological meanings of the word abduction: (1) abduction that only generates plausible hypotheses (selective or creative) - this is the meaning of abduction accepted in my epistemological model - and (2) abduction considered as inference to the best explanation, that also evaluates hypotheses.

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Abduction, Reason and Science - Processes of Discovery and Explanation by L. Magnani

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