By O. Kroodsma (Auth.)
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Extra resources for Acoustic Communication in Birds. Production, Perception & Design Features of Sounds
The manufacturer should be con sulted for specific applications. D . Microphone Specifications It is necessary to view published specifications with a degree of skepticism. They apply only to new units and even then the production variation can be quite wide. If there is a specific parameter that are important to a recording, the 8 David C. Wickstrom Fig. 2. Three-dimensional microphone polar patterns. (A) Cardioid. (B) Omnidirec tional. (C) Figure eight. (D) Shotgun. (E) Supercardioid (see pp.
I—l—n—\~ 6^45 M \ "ft— 4— —j— - f r I itu J&_ (1612/2112) Electronic response of Dan Gibson parabola amplifier, M and V settings. 4^30 ! I ! I ! S ! —1—1—1—I • 1 1 1 1 A B C Lin. 0J0 20 David C. Wickstrom sponse alone is shown in Fig. 5. The assembly offers the advantage of a translu cent dish to allow for visual aiming. It does not offer the option of interchange able microphones, and it requires batteries for operation. The Sony PBR-330 has a diameter of approximately 13 inches. It is offered as an accessory item, and is designed to accommodate a wide range of micro phones.
In the case of a single diaphragm microphone, acoustical networks are used to create the desired pattern. The purpose of the delay network is to cause the sound 7 1. Recording Avian Sounds ©9 e A B C D E Fig. 1. Microphone polar patterns. (A) Omnidirectional. (B) Cardioid. (C) Hypercardioid. (D) Supercardioid. (E) Shotgun. coming from the undesired direction to arrive at both sides of the diaphragm at the same instant, resulting in a net pressure differential of zero. The difficulty of creating a microphone-sized acoustical delay equally effective at all frequencies is one reason for the frequency dependence of polar patterns.
Acoustic Communication in Birds. Production, Perception & Design Features of Sounds by O. Kroodsma (Auth.)